Soltaniyeh is the brilliant capital of the Mongol kings at the beginning of the l4th century, 135 km. from Qazvin. Of its splendid past Soltaniyeh has preserved only a tradition of fine copper and steel-working and the large Mausoleum of Soltan Oljaitu Khodabandeh. This imposing tomb was originally intended as the burial place of the first Shiite imams and was completed in 1307. It dominates the entire surrounding plateau and testifies to the amazing skill of the Mongol architects of the period. It subsequently served as a model for mausoleums throughout the country.
An Armenian Church, known also by the name of St. Tadi, Qara kilisa that has been built on top of a hill in the hamelt (black church) near Chalderan in the township of Maku in the province of West Azerbaijan. The dome of the church resembles a pyramid with 12 buttresses and the eastern exterior has been decorated with black stone and that is one reason why the church is called Ghara Kelisa, meaning black church.
The ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil is the best-preserved and largest of all those discovered in early Asia. It was built of sun-dried brick and originally comprised five storey sand a chapel on the top storey. It was built in 1250 B.C. by the Elamite King Untash Gal for the Elamite deity "Inshushinak".
Shiraz Persepolis (The Gate of All Nations)It is known that the gate was built by Xerxes, the son of Darius, 11-0111 the inscription incised on its lateral stone in three languages of Elamite, Babylonian and Persian. In this inscription, the power of the empire, and the blessing of the god of Ahura Mazda are mentioned, and the gate itself is referred to as the Gate of All Nations.
Cyrus died in529 during a campaign on the frontier of the Oxus and was buried in his capital Pasargadae in Fars.Pasargadaeissome70km. North of Persepolis and is easily accessible by the asphalted Isfahan road. The site of Pasargadae is approached by a large alley, shaded by large trees that bears left and, after crossing the river Polvar, lead directly to the Tomb of Cyrus.
The largest lake of world with a surface area of around 371,000 square kilometers. It lies in the north of Iran in Mazandaran, Golestan and Gilan province and has a maximum depth of about 1025meters. The water of this lake is of two kinds, i.e. it is a fresh-water lake in northern portions whereas on Iran shore is saline. It is the settlement of more than five hundred plant and 850animal species that some of them are Salmon, perch, pike, sturgeon, Algae and herring. Also, one of very few seal species living in Caspian Sea. The wet Caspian littoral is ideal for growing rice and tea. Cotton and citrus fruits are also grown.The beautiful island of Ashuradeh is situated on the north east of gorgan bay.
Whether you are watching the sun set over the gulf, scrambling over the ruins of Portuguese castle at hormoz or just dropping down several gears to the ultra-relaxed pace at which this part of the world operates , you can’t escape the fact the Persian gulf offers a different experience to the rest of Iran. There is geographical contrast- the coast and islands of the gulf itself- but the major difference comes from the variety of people who live here.
In fact 1/2 of Iran is mountains. Iran Mountains are part of Alp and Himalaya Mountain chains.
Iran is a country with combination of different natural attractions. You can visit magnificent desert and at the same time enjoy beautiful forests, Mountains or lakes. Iran is as the countries that has one of the largest lakes of world.i.e.Urmia.
More than one-tenth of the country is forested. The most extensive growths are found on the mountain slopes rising from the Caspian Sea, with stands of oak, ash, elm, cypress, and other valuable trees. On the plateau proper, areas of scrub oak appear on the best-watered mountain slopes, and villagers cultivate orchards and grow the plane tree, poplar, willow, walnut, beech, maple, and mulberry.
Having two important mountain ranges of Alborz and Zagrus cause to be introduced as one of the world's most mountainous countries that attracts many tourists and mountain climbers every year.
Iran's land surface covers 165 million hectares, more than half of which is uncultivable. A total of 11.5 million hectares is under cultivation at any time, of which 3.5 million hectares were irrigated in 1987, and the rest watered by rain. Only 10 percent of the country receives adequate rainfall for agriculture; most of this area is in western Iran. The water shortage is intensified by seasonal rainfalls. The rainy season occurs between October and March, leaving the land parched for the remainder of the year. Immense seasonal variations in flow characterize Iran's rivers.
Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast. Many peaks in the Zagros exceed 3,000 meters above sea level, and in the south-central region of the country there are at least five peaks that are over 4,000 meters. As the Zagros continue into southeastern Iran, the average elevation of the peaks declines dramatically to under 1,500 meters.
Most of Iran is considered as the center of origin of many genetic resources of the world, including many of the original strains of commercially valuable plant species such as wheat, or medicinal and aromatic species. The southwest has some Afro-tropical features, while the southeast has some species from the Indo-Malayan sub-tropical realm.
The wetlands of Iran are globally significant. Large populations of migratory birds winter at these wetlands or use them on their way to and from wintering areas in Africa or the Indian Sub-continent. The marshes of the south Caspian lowlands in Iran's northwest are particularly important for over 20 species of ducks and geese while the mud flats of the Persian Gulf coast are of critical importance for shore birds, gulls and terns. A variety of marine mammals is observed in the southern waters of Iran.
Persians migrated from central Asia to Iran. They are the largest ethnic group of Iran who constitute of 51 % of Iran's population and speak varied Armenian, Turkic languages and Indo-Iranian.
A cave is a large hole that may be underground, in the side of a hill or mountain, or under a cliff.
On the slope of the stately Bisotun Mount in Kermanshah, lays the magnificent inscription and bas-relief of Achaemenid King Darius the Great.
This historical monument, which dates back to 2,000 years, represents a masterpiece in irrigation, stone sculpture, as well as construction of stone structures, including a bridge.
Bam is alive Cities do not die after being abandoned. They are alive even when the earthquake ruins them. When on December26, 2003; an earthquake killed almost a generation of the Bam it was thought that the 2000-year-old history of the man had also buried under the debris. Nevertheless, the fact is that the world largest complex made of sun-dried bricks is still alive and it is one of the best hosts for the tourists.
When French poet Renier described Isfahan as 'half of the world' in the 16th century it was the myriad wonders of the square called Naqshe Isfahan that inspired him. The description wouldn't be out of place today, because while it is now known as Imam Sq (Meydane Imam: Map p216) it is still the home of arguably the most majestic collection of buildings in the Islamic world.
Yazd is one of the oldest and a typical desert city in Iran.
Some of Islamic historians attribute its construction to Alexander the Great, who built a prison there for great men and at the beginning of the Islamic era Yazd was known as Alexander's prison.
The height of this city is 1,215 m. and the annual rainfall is registered 59 mm. in 1990. It is hot in summer, cold in winter and moderate in spring and autumn. The summer heat is tolerable by Wind Tower. This city is at 677 klm of Tehran and 316 km of Isfahan, with a population of over 282,751 in 1992.
Tehran with an area of 1200 sq km is the center of Tehran Province which is situated at the foot of the Alborz Mountains. It is hot and dry in summer and cold in winter. The overage annual rainfall is 225 mm. Its elevation ranges from 1100 m in the south and 1700 m in the north. According to the 1992 census, the population is 6,620,461.
It is believed that Tehran began its development after the invasion of Rey by the Mongols in 617 AH (1220 AD.) But the development and the increase in population as storied since two centuries ago. Shah Tahmasb ordered, a rampart to be built around Tehran, and it was known as a city in 962 AH. (1554 AD.). It was selected as the Capital city for sometime
This city is located in Ali Chay Valley and is the center of Azerbaijane Sharghi Province and is one of the largest cities in (ran. It is 624 km to Tehran by road, 524 km by air and Tehran -Tabriz railway is 736 km long which ends in Jolfa, and can travel to the former U.S.S.R. on this route; As Tabriz is located on the way to Europe and Asia, so many people travel through this city.
Shiraz was the capital for some time and is well-known and famous for poets such as: Sa'di and Hafez who lived and died there. Most of the tourists who traveled through this city wrote a lot about it. It is believed that Shiraz is habitable, beautiful, centre of science and civilization with pleasant weather and good natured people.
History has proved that Shiraz has been habitable since Achaemenid period. In Omavie period, Estakhr city become less important and Shiraz began to develop. The most splendid period was during the Safavid and especially Zand era, due to the extra attention of Karim Khan and Lotfali Khan to this city.
KermanShah city is situated in 47" 4' east longitude and 34° 18' north latitude and is the center of Kermanshahan Province. As it is situated between two cold and warm regions enjoys a moderate climate. KermanShah has a moderate and mountainous climate. It rains most in winter and is moderately warm in summer. The annual rainfall is300-500 mm the overage temperature in the hottest months is above22° C.
The distance between this city and Tehran is 1064 klm and is on Tehran-Bandar Abbes and Zahedan route. Kerman airport is counted as one of the main airports which have doily & weekly flights to Tehran, Ahvaz, Yazd, Isfahan, Bandar Abbas, Mashhad and Shiraz. Also the Trans Iranian Railway passes through this city, and Kerman-Sirjan-Bender-s-Abbes railways will be exploited next year.
This city was conquered by Islam army in 20 A.H. (640 AD.). Islamic art and civilization gradually developed and buildings with Islamic architecture were constructed.
Among all the cities of Iran, which each has an individual ancient precedence, Hamadan has a special place. Some historians believe that Hamada's construction dates back to 3000 BC. And according to an inscription from the first Assyrian king, it is attributed to 1100 BC.
At the top of the green mountains of Takab, West Azerbaijan Province, there's the greatest Iranian and world ancient Zoroastrian's pilgrimage point which is known as "Soleiman Throne" or 'Takht-e Soleiman". It has been the well-known fire temple of Azarghoshnasb and its immortal fire and the mythical lake of Godess Nahi d for the promised messenger's Mother