Iran Flora – Plants and Flowers in IranMost of Iran is considered as the center of origin of many genetic resources of the world, including many of the original strains of commercially valuable plant species such as wheat, or medicinal and aromatic species. The southwest has some Afro-tropical features, while the southeast has some species from the Indo-Malayan sub-tropical realm.

clip_image002

More than one-tenth of the country is forested. The most extensive growths are found on the mountain slopes rising from the Caspian Sea, with stands of oak, ash, elm, cypress, and other valuable trees. On the plateau proper, areas of scrub oak appear on the best-watered mountain slopes, and villagers cultivate orchards and grow the plane tree, poplar, willow, walnut, beech, maple, and mulberry.
Wild plants and shrubs spring from the barren land in the spring and afford pasturage, but the summer sun burns them away. Bears in the mountains, wild sheep and goats, gazelles, wild asses, wild pigs, panthers, and foxes abound. Domestic animals include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, and falcon are native to Iran.
The Iranian plateau, consisting of Iran. Afghanistan and Pakistan split away from Africa, itself the central fragment of the dividing Pangaea. The plateau wandered the great sea of Thetis for millions of years. Drifting north eventually to find and merge with the Eurasian landmass some 150 million years ago.

clip_image004
The present-day area covered by Armenia, Daghestan and the Caucasus was then just a series of islands in the middle of the Sea of Thetis. The pressure exerted by the incoming Iranian plateau pushed the islands in its path inland, the whole lot eventually merging with the Eurasian super-continent.  The pressure exerted by the merger between Eurasia and the Iranian plateau led to folding of the Earth's crust along the line of fusion:  the massive ranges of the Himalayas, Hindoukush, Alborz and Zagros came into existence as a result of this folding process, as did the Red Sea.

The Arabian landmass partially split away from the main continent as a result of this pressure, closed in on Iran and pushed it inland: the shear forces involved led to the emergence of Zagros Mountains. This pressure still continues to this day, hence the frequent seismic activity in western Iran and the ever-increasing height of those mountains.
The Iranian Plateau Was located in a tropical region, below the current equator before separation from the continental land mass of origin, Gondmana. Which was centered on present dry Africa.
Its original fauna and flora, therefore, was essentially of the tropical variety. Once joined with the Eurasian continent, however, it found itself at the crossroads of several different environments.

The Iranian Plateau Was located in a tropical region, below the current equator before separation from the continental land mass of origin, Gondmana. Which was centered on present dry Africa.
Its original fauna and flora, therefore, was essentially of the tropical variety. Once joined with the Eurasian continent, however, it found itself at the crossroads of several different environments.

clip_image005

What the Ice Age took pity on, man in his ravenous greed is ruthlessly destroying, the hypocrisy compounded by the subsequent replacement of the priceless with comparatively worthless conifers.

Looking down from space, the one-and-a-half million square kilometers of the Earth that makes up Iran will look like a trapezium, with mountains covering virtually its entire northern and western portions and arid desert accounting for the rest. The exceptions: two green strips, Along the Caspian littoral to the north and bordering the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman to the south, plus a few fertile basins and valleys in the mountains of Alborz and Zagros and the central range; nothing more. The Alborz range prevents any of the moisture from the Caspian Sea drifting over to central and southern Iran. The Zagros Mountains perform a similar blocking role with respect to the Mediterranean. The end result is an overwhelmingly dry, mountainous country.

Scientists have conventionally divided the Northern Hemisphere in to four major zones: 

1. Europe -Siberia

2. The Mediterranean

3. Iran –Transoxania

4. Desert -Indus 

The soaring peaks of the Alborz range to the north and those of Zagros to the west, together with lesser ranges in the east, centre and south of the country, all combine for more than 100 peaks in excess of 4000 meters and provide the framework within which different climate zones develop, each one home to a panoply of plants and animals. This menagerie includes 8200 species of plant, 500 of bird. 160 of mammal and nigh on1000 species of reptile and aquatic organisms, a full description of which is again beyond the scope of our present discussion.

8200 Species of plants:

As described above. There exist 8200 species of plants in Iran, 2000 of them exclusive to Iran. The Caspian region the southernmost extension of the Europe-Siberia zone -is 800 kilometers long and enjoys annual precipitation ranging from 600 millimeters in Gorgon to 2000 millimeters at Bandar-e- Anzali. The region is home to 80 species of tree and 50 species of shrubs, including the box tree, common alder, oak, beech, hornbeam, Siberian elm. Chestnut, ivy, fern, buttercup, iris and several other species of palustral plants. 

The Zagros Region, stretching from Azerbaijan to the Straits of Hormoz, is a long strip of mountainous terrain that reaches a width of 300 kilometers and has ' annual precipitation in the 200-1000-millimetre range. Its resident flora includes the Persian oak, gallnut, domesticated and wild olives, Judas tree, juniper, milk vetch, Persian turpentine and almond.

The Central Plateau has an average elevation of 1300 meters, dropping to a low as 300 meters in the Kavir-e- Lut. Average annual precipitation is 300 millimeters, though some areas may not get any rain at all during the year. The predominant plant species are those resistant to heat and high soil salinity, such as the wormseed, milk vetch, Goose foot, tamarisk and soap-root. At higher altitudes one also comes across mountain almonds, wild pistachios, juniper and Persian turpentine.

The Southern Coastal Plains stretch from Qasr-e -Shirin to Gavatar and are dominated by a tropical climate. Plant species that do well in such conditions include the lotus tree, date palm, devil's pomegranate, and honeydew melon and mangrove forests. The mangrove is one of the wonders of nature. Originally a true land plant, the mangrove eventually adopted as its habitat the banks of rivers emptying into the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman. Mangrove forests are especially common in Qeshm and Gavatar, and are one of the true miracles of Creation. Another interesting plant is the 'Chandal' a tree native to the island of Madagascar but a resident of the Iranian plateau for several million years. Its mode of reproduction is described as 'viviparous' and the reader is encouraged to read further about it. 

500 species of bird

Some 500 species of birds live in the trees and shrubs, mountains and waters of Iran. Species related to the duck family are invariably migratory. Whereas members of the partridge family ore either semi-migratory or native species. Of these 500 species, 350 reproduce inside Iran, though 250 of them actually originate in geographic zones outside the country, such as the green woodpecker, Greater spotted woodpecker, wall-crawler. Wood pigeon, blue-headed titmouse and forest goldfinch, which come from Asia and temperate European regions, and the garden woodpecker and black-headed titmouse, originating from the warm shrub lands of the Mediterranean. Species fly in from as far away the plains of Africa, not to mention closer home from the steppes of Asia and Turkistan. More than 30 species of Indian origin live in the south of Iran, including the Indian heron, white-back eagle. Mocking bird, lesser sea-dove, coastal egret and yellow heron, which originate in both India and Africa. 

160 species of mammal

As Mr.Afshin Bakhtiar in his new book entitled "The Nature of Iran" has stated
The secret of Iran's varied nature is encoded in seven 'magic' numbers, listed
Below and explained thereafter.

The cryptic numerals of Iranian nature are

100, 6000, 8200, 160,500, 1000 and 129,999,998. 

As to their significance:

100: The temperature difference between different points in Iran during the summer and winter. In Hamadan, for example, the temperature drops by at least 2°C if one climbs just 200 meters up Mount Alvand. Similarly, in AbarKouh, a few kilometers in to the desert the temperature will undoubtedly climb more than a few degrees. If we assume that the temperature drops by about 1°C for every 100 meters elevation, the question of what constitutes the" correct" temperature becomes rather more difficult to answer. How low is the temperature at 4000 meters, or on top of Mount Damavand (5671 m), for that matter? At the other ends of the scale, my esteemed mentor; Dr Parviz Kardavani believes that the warmest point on the planet is not to be found, as claimed elsewhere. In Arizona, Arabia or the deserts of Libya but instead in the Kavir-e- Lut in Iran, where temperatures in excess of 600   C have been reported. Accordingly, assuming the temperature atop the highest peaks in Iran reaches at least 400 C below zero and that in the Kavir-e Lut reaches 60°C, the temperature difference thus obtained equals 100°e, a figure of much significance.

600: The highest point in the Iranian Plateau, Mount Damavand. , Stands 5671 meters above and its lowest point, in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea, lies27 meters below sea level. Simple arithmetic indicates, therefore, that the elevation range in the Iranian plateau equals approximately 6000 meters.

8200: Dr Qahreman is one of those people, who have spent much of their valuable lives among the shrubs and trees of Iran. He states that Iran is habitat to more than 8200 species of plant, 2000 of them exclusive to the plateau. From the jungles of Hirkan in the north to the steppes of Alborz and beyond them to the goosefoot forests of the desert, Iran acts as back drop to a unique and remarkable interplay of vegetation. 

160: A temperature difference of one hundred degrees and an elevation range of six thousand meters interact over an area of one-and-a-half million square kilometers to create a diversity of climates in which more than 8200 plant species co-exist with myriad small and large animals. One hundred and sixty species of mammal originating as far afield as Europe, India and Africa-live in Iran, forming, again, a fairly unique collection.

500: On any long flight over Iran, you are likely to witness a number of blue spots below you along the way. A closer look will reveal any of these "spots" to be a lake, pond or watering hole; a blue beacon to steer in the flocks of migrating birds yearning for a place to rest after a trek that perhaps began in Siberia and has lasted several thousand kilometers. Where better than the Anzali pond, the watering holes of Masileh or Lake Bakhtegan for migratory these flyers to rest their weary wings. Indeed the waters of Iran annually host millions of migrant birds, fleeing from the harsh Siberian cold in search of more hospitable climes. If we add the number of migratory, semi-migratory and native bird species found in Iran, we arrive at the figure five hundred species.

1000:  The Caspian Sea, with its vast collection of caviar-producing fish; the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, the abundant in land ponds, lakes and rivers that nurture the whole spectrum of desert and mountainous habitats are home to hundreds of species of reptiles and fish-nearly six hundred of which have been formally identified. A concerted research effort, however, will surely raise this figure to more than one thousand.

129999998: This figure represents the difference in weight between the smallest and largest mammals native to Iran. Note that 1have used the word 'mammal'; since if I were to use the word 'animal', the figure obtained would come to a round 130,000,000 grams. The amazing point here is the word 'mammal' -there indeed exists in Iran a mammal that weighs just 2 grams, an insectivore. At the other end of the scale. As it were there is a species of whale that weighs close to 130 tons. Thus we have seven numbers, a seven-number combination with which to unlock the diverse mysteries of Iranian nature.

Dionysia- THE Botanical Gem of Iran

A spectacular cushion plant in Primulaceae growing in rock crevices on vertical limestone cliffs at a range of altitudes from about 1500 m to over 3500 m. There are currently 49 species of Dionysia and are mainly centered on Iran and Afghanistan, but also found in Iraq, Pakistan, and Tadzhikistan.

We saw 14 endemic species of Dionysia in the Zagros Mountains. There was an amazing diversification of species - very rare to see two species on the same cliff.

The Islamic Republic of Iran annually exports some 15 to 20 million dollars of its flora and plants.

  • Although you are interested in visiting old Persia, you do not have that much time? This 5-day tour is designed for you. You can visit Tehran the capital of Iran and also two famous metropolises of this country -Isfahan and Shiraz - in only 5 days plus 6 UNESCO World Heritages and many other attractions.

    Tehran Travel by Plane Isfahan Travel by Car Shiraz

    Read More
  • Going around Iran from Tehran in the North to the west of Iran in Ahwaz (oil capital) and continue your route from Shiraz and southern roads to south-east then go to the center of Iran and continue your travel in the heart of Iran and going back again to Tehran airport, you will experience a tour in the points of the compass of Ancient Persia only in 11 days.   
    10 UNESCO World Heritages and also many other inspiring places are waiting for you in this tour. This package includes ancient Persian sites which were built by men and women of 5000 years ago in Susa and also natural-historical sites such as cave-houses of Meymand, Hydraulic System of Shustar and Persian gardens with their eastern mansions inside and taking a walk in two great capitals of Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC): Persepolis and Pasargadae.

    Tehran Travel by Plane Ahwaz Travel by Car Shiraz Travel by Car Yazd via Meymand Travel by Car Isfahan Travel by Car Kashan via Abyaneh

    Read More
  • With only spending 7 days in Iran, this tour offers you the essence of this country. Visiting famous cities of Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz you can also have a tour of Kashan and Abyaneh. You can also visit 6 UNESCO World Heritages of Iran in this brief time.

    Tehran  Travel by Car  Kashan Travel by Car  Isfahan vai Abyaneh Travel by Car  Shiraz 

    Read More
  • Silk Road, a herald of relationship among nations, played an essential role for transfer of culture and goods to other countries, and Iran as a part of this ancient road with its rich cultural vestiges, ancient civilization, vastness of land and climatic and geographical varieties has a lot of attractions to offer, with over 6,000 years of history and tradition, breathtaking landscapes of desert, mountain, and steppe, and glorious ancient cities that are home to the warmest people in the world. Visit Iran, discover a new place, and discover yourself.

    Tehran  Travel by Plane  Mashhad  Travel by Car  Shahrud  Travel by Car  Damghan  Travel by Car  Qazvin  Travel by Car  Zanjan  Travel by Car  Tabriz  Travel by Car  Kandovan

    Read More
  • Glory of Iran is a tour that will take you on a journey into the depths of ancient Persian civilization, capturing the majesty and the splendor of the Achaemenid and Sassanid empires and their influence on world history, religion, art and culture by revealing the ancient tales hidden in the ruins and reliefs which exist today as a testament to their legacy. In addition to that you will be witnessing Iran’s contemporary cultural and historical influences also.

    Tehran  Travel by Car  Kashan  Travel by Car  Isfahan  Travel by Car  Yazd  Travel by Car  Bavanat  Travel by Car  Bazm  Travel by Car  Shiraz

    Read More
  • We have designed this tour with a touch of eco-tourism for those of our guests who would like to experience the country life as well as the main tourist attractions of Iran. On this tour you will visit Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Yazd. Bavanat eco-tourism center is the icing on the cake where you will be hosted/catered for/shown around by a family rather than the usual hotel chains. Every member of the host family will act as your travel agent.

    Tehran  Travel by Plane  Shiraz  Travel by Car  Persepolise - Bavanat  Travel by Car  Yazd  Travel by Car  Isfahan  Travel by Plane  Tehran

    Read More
  • Come, indulge on an impressive historical journey with us to witness the greatness of the Persian empire, its post Islamic architecture and Iran’s modern urban life. Whether this is your first trip to Iran or you’ve already fallen in love with Iran in your previous trips, this tour has a lot to offer. Travelling to Yazd and Kerman, our tours offer the perfect blend of mystery, beauty, history, culture and star filled skies. From the narrow streets in the ancient Persian towns to the amazing sand dunes of the mosques and hidden oases.

    Tehran  Travel by Car  Hamedan  Travel by Car  Kermanshah  Travel by Car  Ahwaz  Travel by Car  Shiraz  Travel by Car  Kerman  Travel by Car  Yazd  Travel by Car  Isfahan

    Read More
  • This tour offers visiting the cities of Iran Golden Triangle - Isfahan, Shiraz and Yazd - plus Tehran the Capital. This tour also includes 6 UNESCO World Heritages and visiting two desert towns of Iran: Naein and Meybod.

    Tehran  Travel by Plane  Isfahan Travel by Car  Yazd via Naein and Meybod  Travel by Car  Shiraz 

    Read More
load more hold SHIFT key to load all load all
  • The relationship between Iran and India is one of the oldest and strongest in the modern history. The existence of several empires spanning both Persia and India ensured the constant migration of people between the two regions and the spread and evolution of the Indo-Iranian language groups. As a consequence, the people of India and Iran share significant cultural, linguistic and ethnic characteristics.

    Read More
  • Probably no country in the world is more mischaracterized in Western eyes than Iran. Most Americans' perceptions of Iran are limited to images they see on news channels and when most of what people know about another country comes from the news, and that news is all about diplomatic showdowns, nuclear brinkmanship and "axis of evil" labels, it's easy to forget that behind all of the politics, ordinary folks are living their ordinary lives not all that different from any small town in the US of A.

    Shiraz Travel by Car Bavanat Travel by Car Yazd Travel by Car Isfahan Travek by Plane Tehran

    Read More
  • According to official figures, there has been an enormous surge in German citizens visiting Iran since 2004.

    It seems that Iran’s attractions appeal greatly to our German guests, from the ancient tombs of Western Iran to Persepolis in Shiraz, beautiful and one of a kind mosques of Isfahan, all the way to the deserts of Yazd and Tehran’s cosmopolitan night life.

    Here at incredible Iran we understand the importance of our German visitors, hence we have dedicated an agent as well as providing German speaking guides to meet all requirements of our German speaking clientele. We have even designed an especial tour exclusively for our German passengers.

    Read More
  • 中国旅游伊朗

    Newest China Towns in the world: China towns of Iran.

    Sino-Iranian relations, refers to the historic diplomatic, cultural and economic relations between the cultures of China proper and Greater Iran, dating back to ancient times.These historical connections are still in place and business is blooming between Iran and China more than ever.

    There are many Chinese business men and women who visit Iran every year, in Southern Islands of Iran there are new China towns. Kish and Qeshm Islands are homes to the newest China towns in the world.

    Read More
  • Iran – Portugal. An unusual but unique history.

    A piece of Portugal in the heart of Persian Gulf

    The Iranian – Portuguese historical ties may not be known to a lot of people even in Iran or Portugal but these ties go back for as far as 16th century. Persia – Portugal war took place between 1507 and 1622 and involved the Portuguese Empire and its vassal, the Kingdom of Ormus, on one side, and the Safavid Empire with the help of the Kingdom of England on the other side.

    Read More
  • A privileged relationship between Iran and Italy dates back to the age of the ancient Roman and Persian Empires. Despite their ever-changing internal affairs, the two political centers of Europe and Asia, throughout the entire ancient time, experienced long lasting contacts that produced political and military rivalries as well as economic and cultural relations of mutual interest.

    The reasons inducing Italian states towards Persia were of three natures: religious, economic, and political, not to mention “those travelers who passed through (Persia) on their way to or from India or beyond” or “visited the country merely out of curiosity”.

    Read More
  • Ozzies are known for being globe trotters and Iran – to many people’s surprise – has become a popular destination for Australian tourists. We have seen a huge surge since 2011 and as such we’re offering exclusive services to our new guests from down under. Every month we see Australians from all walks of life visiting Iran. From the middle aged couple who have seen pretty much every country in the world to the 19 year olds on their first gap year.

    Read More
  • Hola de todos
    If you are visiting this page it means that you are interested in visiting Iran. We have seen a big rise in Spanish speaking tourists visiting Iran recently.
    Well you have come to the right place. With us, you can explore Iran’s ancient history as well as its recent. Step inside the palaces of Persepolis, gaze at the treasures of Imam square in Isfahan– inside and out – or at the stars of Yazd’s desert at night.

    Read More
load more hold SHIFT key to load all load all